Traction. A handful of RCTs have shown no effect of traction on chronic LBP. More recent studies on "decompression machines" (machine-driven traction devices) suggest the same.
Orthoses. There is some evidence to indicate that a lumbar corset provides some mild subjective improvement.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units. There have been a handful of RCTs on TENS therapy. The results conflict, and no meaningful information has been gathered.
Acupuncture. Again, several RCTs have been undertaken, with conflicting results. Compared with sham, acupuncture appears to have a minimal effect on chronic LBP.
Functional restoration programs. A moderate but consistent response has been noted with the combination of physical therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
SUMMARY: Exercise, manual therapy, a light corset, and functional restoration programs provide moderate relief for some patients.
Injections and percutaneous therapeutic interventions. They have some effect in patients with radiculopathy. In multiple RCTs of patients with isolated chronic LBP, however, epidural corticosteroid injections, lumbar disk injections, facet joint injections, trigger point injections, radiofrequency ablation techniques, and focal intradiscal electrothermal treatments (IDETs) demonstrated no effect or minimal short-term effect in highly selected patients.
SUMMARY: No breakthroughs have been found here—and these treatments are invasive!